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The constitutional congress convened on this day is charged by Providence with the task of giving the nation the institutions she desires, following the course of circumstances and the nature of things. Fearing that I may be regarded as an obstacle to establishing the Republic on the true base of its happiness, I personally have cast myself down from the supreme position of leadership to which your generosity had elevated me. I have been the victim of ignominious suspicions, with no possible way to defend the purity of my principles.

The same persons who aspire to the supreme command have conspired to tear your hearts from me, attributing to me their own motives, making me seem to be the instigator of projects they themselves have conceived, representing me, finally, as aspiring to a crown which they themselves have offered on more than one occasion and which I have rejected with the indignation of the fiercest republican.

Simon Bolivar (Simon Bolivar): A Life

Never, never, I swear to you, has it crossed my mind to aspire to a kingship that my enemies have fabricated in order to ruin me in your regard. Do not be deceived, Colombians! My only desire has been to contribute to your freedom and to be the preservation of your peace of mind. If for this I am held guilty, I deserve your censure more than any man. Do not listen, I beg you, to the vile slander and the tawdry envy stirring up discord on all sides.

Will you allow yourself to be deceived by the false accusations of my detractors? Please don't be foolish!

Biografia de Simón Bolívar El Libertador

Gather around the constitutional congress. It represents the wisdom of the nation, the legitimate hope of the people, and the final point of reunion of the patriots. Its sovereign decrees will determine our lives, the happiness of the Republic, and the glory of Colombia. If dire circumstances should cause you to abandon it, there will be no health for the country, and you will drown in the ocean of anarchy, leaving as your children's legacy nothing but crime, blood, and death.

Fellow Countrymen! Hear my final plea as I end my political career; in the name of Colombia I ask you, beg you, to remain united , lest you become the assassins of the country and your own executioners. Gran Colombia was dissolved later that year and was replaced by the republics of Venezuela, New Granada, and Ecuador.

Sucre was regarded by some as a political threat because of his popularity after he led a resounding patriot victory at the Battle of Ayacucho , ending the war against the Spanish Empire in South America.

For the rest of the 19th century and into the early 20th century, the political environment of Latin America was fraught with civil wars and characterized by a sociopolitical phenomenon known as caudillismo , which became very common in Venezuela, especially after Indeed, such struggles already existed shortly after the patriot victory over the loyalists because the former Spanish colonies created new nations that proclaimed their own autonomous states, which produced military confrontations with political conspirations that sent some of the former independence heroes into exile.

The main characteristic of caudillismo was the arrival of authoritarian but charismatic political figures who would typically rise to power in an unconventional way, often legitimizing their right to govern through undemocratic processes. These caudillos maintained their control primarily on the basis of their personalities, as well as skewed interpretations of their popularity and what constituted a majority among the masses.

O'Leary , to burn the remaining extensive archive of his writings, letters, and speeches. In , he was moved to a monument set up for his interment at the National Pantheon of Venezuela. The Quinta near Santa Marta has been preserved as a museum with numerous references to his life.

Simon Bolivar - Accomplishments, Revolution & Death - Biography

She was related to the aristocratic families of the marquis del Toro of Caracas and the marquis de Inicio of Madrid. Eight months after returning to Venezuela with him, she died from yellow fever on 22 January He swore never to marry again, a promise he kept. Not surprisingly, Spanish historian Salvador de Madariaga refers to the death of Bolivar's wife as one of the key moments in Hispanic America's history. He lived in Napoleonic France for a while and undertook the Grand Tour.

Humboldt later wrote: "I was wrong back then, when I judged him a puerile man, incapable of realizing so grand an ambition. Most of them were ephemeral and did not last long. The relationship was controversial at the time, because Manuela was already married to James Thorne, but they became estranged in due to irreconcilable differences. This romance was clear in their letters, but few of them have survived. Most of her letters were destroyed after Manuela's death. He would not hesitate to stop the fleet transporting the whole army and bound for Margarita Island during two days in order to wait for his mistress to join his ship.


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He was also deemed incompetent in military matters, systematically avoiding any risks and permanently anxious for his own safety. His closest living relatives descend from his sisters and brother. One of his sisters died in infancy. In his long life, Fernando had minor participation in some of the major political events of Venezuelan history and also traveled and lived extensively throughout Europe. Fernando died in at the age of By contrast, he referred to Spanish America as having been subject to the "triple yoke of ignorance, tyranny, and vice".

The Bolivian constitution intended to establish a lifelong presidency and a hereditary senate, essentially recreating the British unwritten constitution , as it existed at the time. How to govern ourselves after winning independence. It can be said that the Liberator exhausted his soul trying to find an answer to that question Tyranny or anarchy? Absolute liberty always leads to absolute power and among these two extremes is social liberty'.

He is the disciple of Montesquieu in his insistence that institutions have to be adapted to culture. Alexander of Scotland" in Paris. He founded the Masonic Lodge No.

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Navy between and Minor planet Boliviana discovered by Max Wolf is named in his honor. The name was suggested by Camille Flammarion. His birthday is a public holiday in Venezuela and Bolivia. The Netflix series is a Colombian production with Spanish as the main language.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Venezuelan military and political leader, South American libertador. This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: This section contains a repetitive and contradictory description of events. Please help improve this section if you can. February Learn how and when to remove this template message.

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ISBN 13: 9789978720394

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. First edition, Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 21 August Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. David Bushnell. New York: Oxford University Press Reference list Barbier J. Battista A. Castro Leiva L. Fisher J.

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